A project is an endeavor undertaken to
accomplish a unique purpose that normally involve several people performing interrelated activities, and the main sponsor for the project is often interested in the effective use of resources to complete the project in an efficient and timely manner (Schwalbe 2000, p.4). As a result, there are several project attributes such as its unique purpose; it’s temporary, its need of resources, its sponsor and its uncertainty.
There are also another attributes, which also important to be considered (Schwalbe 2000, p.5):
• Scope constraint. What is the project trying to accomplish? What unique product or service does the customer or sponsor expect from the project?
• Time constraint. How long should it take to complete the project? What is the project’s schedule?
• Budget constraint. What should it cost to complete the project?
Therefore, a project management can be defined as “the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities in order to meet or exceed stakeholders needs and expectations from a project” (Schwalbe 2000, p.7).
Project management includes various key elements i.e. project stakeholders, project management knowledge areas and project management tools and technique. The knowledge areas describe the key competencies that project managers must develop (Schwalbe 2000, p.8):
• Project scope management that involves defining and managing all the work required to successfully complete the project.
• Project time management that includes estimating how long it will take to complete the work, developing an acceptable project schedule, and ensuring timely completion of the project.
• Project cost management that consists of preparing and managing the budget for the project.
• Project quality management that ensures the project will satisfy the stated or implied needs for which it was undertaken.
• Project human resource management that concerns with making effective use of the people involved with the project.
• Project communication management that involves generating, collecting, disseminating, and storing project information.
• Project risk management that includes identifying, analyzing, and responding to risks related to the project.
• Project procurement management that involves acquiring or procuring goods and services that are needed for a project from outside the performing organization.
• Project integration management that coordinates other knowledge areas throughout the project’s lifecycle.
The first four is categorized as the core function because they lead to specific project objectives. Then, the next four is categorized as the facilitating function because they are the means through which the project objectives are achieved (Schwalbe 2000, p.8).
The processes in project management can be grouped into five processes group (Schwalbe 2000, p.39):
• Initiating processes that include actions to commit to begin or end projects and project phases.
• Planning processes that include devising and maintaining a workable scheme to accomplish the business need for the project was undertaken to address.
• Executing processes that include coordinating people and other resources to carry out the project plans and produce the products or deliverables of the project or phase.
• Controlling processes that ensure that project objectives are met.
• Closing processes that include formalizing acceptance of the project or phase and bringing it to an orderly end.